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Research Article Who Accepts Bribery? Evidence from a Global Household Survey
This very interesting new paper adds a new dimension to the debate on the cultural roots of corruption. It uses responses from households in 66 countries to address differences in the extent to which bribes and gifts are considered acceptable. It finds that levels of acceptance differ substantially from one country to another, but they do not conform to popular expectations: Respondents in rich, western countries do not exhibit lower levels of acceptance. A higher acceptance of bribery is observed in former colonies and those without a majority religion. Acceptance is also higher among those who paid a bribe.
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Research Article Global Corruption Report 2008: Water
More than 1 billion people live with inadequate access to safe drinking water, with dramatic consequences for lives, livelihoods and development. Transparency International’s Global Corruption Report 2008 demonstrates in its thematic section that corruption is a cause and catalyst for this water crisis, which is likely to be further exacerbated by climate change. Corruption affects all aspects of the water sector, from water resources management to drinking water services, irrigation and hydropower. In this report, scholars and professionals document the impact of corruption in the sector, with case studies from all around the world offering practical suggestions for reform.
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Research Article Open Budget Survey Report 2010
The only independent and comparative measure of its kind, the Open Budget Survey assesses whether governments meet basic standards of transparency and accountability with national budgets. This report on the survey findings reveals that 74 of the 94 countries assessed fail to meet basic standards, which opens the door to abuse and inappropriate and inefficient use of public money.
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Research Article Corruption and the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Analysis
This study theoretically and empirically explores the relationship between the level of corruption in a country and the size of its black market or "shadow economy". The authors hypothesize that in high income countries, the shadow economy serves as a substitute for political corruption, while in low income countries, the two activities compliment one another. However, when testing the empirical relationship between perceived corruption (ICRG data) and the shadow economy (Johnson 2005), they find no empirical link. When using a "hard measure" of measured corruption, the authors find some empirical evidence that low income countries with larger shadow economies also tend to hive higher levels of corruption, yet the relationship is insignificnat in wealtheir countries.
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Research Article Global Corruption Report 2006: Health
Health is a major global industry, a key responsibility and budget expense for governments and businesses; but more than that, it is a global human right. Corruption deprives people of access to health care and leads to poor health outcomes. Every year the world spends more than US $3 trillion on health services, most of which is financed by taxpayers. These large flows of funds are an attractive target for abuse. The diversity of health systems worldwide, the multiplicity of parties involved, the paucity of good record keeping in many countries, and the complexity in distinguishing among corruption, inefficiency and honest mistakes make it difficult to determine the overall costs of corruption in this sector around the globe.
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Research Article Deterrence and Constrained Enforcement: Alternative Regimes to Deal with Bribery
This paper provides interesting insights into deterence of bribery by investigating how bribe transactions are enforced. It integrates insights from a Law and Economics perspective with transaction cost analysis. The author develops a game-theoretic approach to show that, irrespective of whether a rational choice or a behavioral approach is employed, increasing penalties and the risks of detection is not always advisable. Penalties can have a perverse effect by helping corrupt actors create the bonds that are needed for enforcing their deal.
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Research Article Integrating Human Rights in the Anti-Corruption Agenda: Challenges, Possibilities and Opportunities
This report examines how the use of a human rights framework can strengthen and enhance anti-corruption strategies. It argues that both discourses are principally concerned with the abuse of power and the human rights norms and principles can enrich anti-corruption policy-making by illuminating how power is socially organised.
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Research Article Sanctions, Benefits, and Rights: Three Faces of Accountability
This paper explores whether decentralised governments provide better accountability mechanisms to citizens by studying 30 randomly selected municipalities in Mexico. It finds that civil society activism is effective in ensuring service delivery, the relationship citizen groups have with local governments is extractive, rather than based on rights and demands of good performance. An appreciation of this distinction in the way accountability mechanisms function on the ground have important implications for the design of policies, programs and projects and in understanding the impact of decentralisation.
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Research Article D source code Stagnation of a "Miracle": Botswana's Governance Record Revisited
This paper challenges the commonly held perception of Botswana as an “African miracle” in good governance. It does so by taking an empirical approach to assessing the extent of neopatrimonialism in Botswana, an issue which has been largely ignored in mainstream analyses. The author attempts to explain Botswana’s comparatively low levels of neopatrimonalism by looking at factors such as dominance of one political party, elite-cohesion, economic and administrative interests that have ensured a “strong” rational-legal state. However, he warns that changes in these underlying causes is giving rise to increased neopatrimonial exchanges in the country.
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Research Article D source code Researching Civil Remedies for International Corruption: The Choice of the Functional Comparative Method
This paper examines how the research in the area of civil remedies for international corruption should be better conducted. The author advocates for the choice of the functional comparative method as the appropriate methodology to deal with the question, given the international dimensions of the phenomenon of corruption.
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