Latest in Anti Corruption Research
Inequality and Corruption in Democracies: A Vicious Cycle It is commonly accepted that democracies are generally less corrupt than more authoritarian forms of government, but attempts to explain varying levels of corruption in different democracies often resort to a vague allusion to the “maturity” of a given democracy. At its worst, this merely refers to how westernized a country is, exposing an expectation that “they” should simply become more like “us”. Even looking past these normative concerns, the use of the imprecisely-defined variable “maturity” in comparative analyses of corruption in different democracies is not particularly convincing. In his forthcoming book, Jong-Sung You conducts a comparative historical analysis of the role that economic inequality plays as a driver of corruption in democratic contexts, looking in particular at Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. He argues that inequality produces several causal mechanisms that serve to embed corrupt practices within democratic structures and make them difficult to eradicate.
Filed under: Civil Society, Elections, Political Corruption, Poverty, Transition Countries, Asia Pacific, Empirical Data Analysis, Comparative Analysis
Guide on how to Use the Inter-American System of Human Rights for the Protection of Anti-Corruption Whistleblowers The “Guide on how to Use the Inter-American System of Human Rights for the Protection of Anti-Corruption Whistleblowers” is meant to act as a tool to help individuals as well as civil society organizations understand how human rights standards, such as the Inter-American System of Human Rights (ISHR), work in cases where anti-corruption whistleblowers are vulnerable to abuse and face various risks. Nash, Bascur and Contreras, who work as researchers at the University of Chile, analyse the opportunities that the ISHR provides in complementing national regulations concerning whistleblower protection, such as limitations to the act of whistleblowing itself, as well as other considerations that need to be taken into account by any potential whistleblower.
Cities and corruption – the great, unfortunate disconnect in research and practice Corruption is inherently an interdisciplinary field of inquiry. Resorting to bribery to get access to drinking water is about both corruption and water issues; policy capture in tobacco regulation is about both corruption and health issues, and so the list continues. However, as in any specialised practice, there is a tendency that silos emerge and thinking turns a bit introspective. Scholars and practitioners that deal with water issues take care of the water aspects while researchers on governance focus on corruption aspect. What seems to be a convenient division of labour risks creating a disconnect that forgoes many opportunities of mutual inspiration and joint inquiry.
Petty corruption in Central and Eastern Europe: the client's perspective How does petty corruption vary according to social status and the nature of the relationship between the client and the corrupt actor? This is the central question that Jancsics aims to answer in this paper using the case study of Hungary. The author reveals the great extent and complexity of how the client’s social status impacts petty corruption exchanges by conducting and analysing 50 in-depth interviews with Hungarians belonging to five different socio-economic groups (lower working-class, working class, entrepreneurs, middle-class, elite) using the grounded theory approach.
Filed under: Poverty, Service Delivery, Transition Countries, Europe and Central Asia, Empirical Data Analysis, Qualitative Analysis, Single Country Analysis, Education, Health
Corruption measurement: The case of Russian Federation Drawing upon the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, Zhuravleva proposes a groundbreaking method to measure corruption. The author uncovered a counterintuitive living standards gap between workers from the public and private sectors, concluding that the observed gap results from unreported income within the public sector, most likely due to corruption activities.
Filed under: Transition Countries, Europe and Central Asia, Empirical Data Analysis, Single Country Analysis, Private Sector (General)
Subsidiarity in Global Health Governance: 'Two Publics' and Defiance in the Global Fund's Operations in Uganda Public-private institutions such as the Global Fund to fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) are relatively new on the development scene. The GFATM in particular has sought to institutionalize accountability, transparency and open dialogue since it was founded in 2003. In this way, and by involving recipient countries in top-level decision making, it has attempted to tackle specific health issues. While the GFATM has largely succeeding in securing provision of medicines to developing countries, it too has witnessed some major corruption scandals, notably in Uganda. This new paper by Sharifah Sekalala and Monica Kirya seeks to establish why, despite these safeguards, corruption is occurring.
Filed under: Civil Society, Developement Assistance, Local Government, Political Corruption, Public Financial Management, Transition Countries, Africa, Citizen Initiatives, Single Country Analysis, Health
Corruption and Income This paper examines whether countries with higher income levels are likely to be less corrupt. While both income and corruption are highly correlated, existing research has not established causation in either direction.
Filed under: Political Corruption, Global, Anti-Corruption Institutions, Empirical Data Analysis, Comparative Analysis, Private Sector (General)
Book Review: Tropical Gangsters II "Adventures in the World's Poorest Places Robert Klitgaard, one of the prominent anti-corruption scholars, offers a thorough insight on the problems of development faced by some of the world’s poorest states. Corruption is found to be a common barrier for societal progress.
Filed under: Aid and Humanitarian Assistance, Civil Society, Developement Assistance, E-Government, Gender, Media, Political Corruption, Post-conflict, Poverty, Procurement, Public Financial Management, Transition Countries, Africa, Latin America and the Carribbean, Access to Information, Anti-Corruption Education, Anti-Corruption Institutions, Anti-Corruption Laws, Audit, Citizen Initiatives, Investigative Journalism, Self-regulation, Whistleblowing, Qualitative Analysis, Single Country Analysis, Private Sector (General), Education, Construction, Defence, Financial Markets, Energy
Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue? Public Opinion, Sustainable Development, and the Paradox of Aid The relationship between aid and corruption is rather complex, one that involves a range of dynamics that define their interaction. In Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue? Monika Bauhr and Naghmeh Nasiritousi develop a valuable research paper which evaluates the aid-corruption paradox in the light of the inquiry: “Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries?”
Filed under: Aid and Humanitarian Assistance, Global, Anti-Corruption Laws, Empirical Data Analysis, Qualitative Analysis
Book Review: Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies Is Party Patronage still relevant in Contemporary Europe? A comparative research on patterns of public employment in 15 EU member states. Who, Why, and Where selection of bureaucratic personnel is ruled by patronage.
Filed under: Elections, Europe and Central Asia, Qualitative Analysis, Comparative Analysis, Education, Health, Defence
Misunderestimating Corruption Assuming a downward bias within survey-based estimates of corruption, the authors develop a model of the interview process in order to estimate the prevalence of reticent behavior when answering such sensitive questions as corruption acts. The authors used the World Bank Enterprise Survey (Peru 2010) and the Gallup World Poll (Asia) unveiling robustness hazards within survey-based corruption measurement. The authors then suggest the use of reticence-adjusted estimates to provide a more accurate picture of the extent of corruption.
Filed under: Latin America and the Carribbean, Asia Pacific, Experimental Research, Empirical Data Analysis, Comparative Analysis
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Controlling Corruption in the European Union Drawing upon an extensive range of statistical data, this report examines the extent of corruption across the European Union (EU). It makes a strong case that corruption is a central factor contributing to the economic crisis and preventing the potential recovery from it.
Filed under: Europe and Central Asia, Anti-Corruption Institutions, Anti-Corruption Laws, Comparative Analysis, International Analysis
Identifying Corruption Risks in Defence and Security:Empirical Evidence Using the Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index This Working Paper by Oliver Cover and Saad Mustafa raises the question of using of sector specific typologies for better conceptualizing corruption. Through comparing data from the corruption risks typology and indicators developed for Transparency International UK’s Defence and Security Programme, the authors ask whether analysing these elements compiled with the help of practitioners helps better understanding the concept of corruption in the defence sector than theoretical debates.
The Eroding Effect of Corruption on Public Support for Democracy Jonas Linde and Gissur Erlingsson form part of a growing research agenda on investigating corruption in so-called “least corrupt countries” – particularly the Nordic and Scandinavian nations. Despite the fact that some economists believe the scope for corruption is greatest in states with large public sectors, the Nordic countries, with their sizeable welfare systems, consistently top Transparency International’s corruption perceptions index (CPI) as some of the “cleanest” states in the world. Nevertheless, Linde and Erlingsson observe that domestic perception of corruption in public office, particularly in Sweden, is surprisingly high. They find that although these perceptions have very little to do with actual rates of impropriety amongst public servants, belief in a high level of corruption has knock-on implications for public support for democracy.
Filed under: Local Government, Europe and Central Asia, Citizen Initiatives, Investigative Journalism, Empirical Data Analysis, Single Country Analysis
Crime, Police Corruption and Development, Evidence from Victimization Data Exploring the International Crime Victimization Surveys (ICVS), the authors investigate the role of crime and police corruption on long run economic development. Although the use of ICVS data prove challenging, the authors were able to puzzle out the role crime plays on development through the corruption channel.
Filed under: Judiciary, Organised Crime, Political Corruption, Global, Empirical Data Analysis, International Analysis